ZigBee is the wireless application which is working on the ISM band 2.4GHz. It is the low power and mesh networking technology.

As same as the other standard communication protocol, ZigBee has its own PHY and MAC layers. For this particular case, the ZigBee is working on the 2.4GHz as the RF communication. While going up to the application layer of the ZigBee solution, the application devices will normally defined as COO – the Coordinator, Routers and the End Devices.


In general case, there is only one COO in each network, while, there are able to have various number of Routers and End Devices in order to form a mesh network. It is not hard to understand that the COO and the Routers are normally operated whenever a stable network is formed. For each of the ZigBee device, it has the micro controller to control the RF data communication, sleep mode and network implementation. Consequently, a firmware development will normally needed in the ZigBee application.

Regarding on the hardware design of the ZigBee, it needs the RF matching design as well as the antenna design with subject to the operation range up to 1km. Unfortunately, the ZigBee Home Automation application would only need the range up to 100m LOS. It is highly recommended to have more detail about the ZigBee from the ZigBee Alliance.